Air Dried (AD)

Lumber that has been dried by exposure to air without heat.



The trunk of a tree.


End Check

Separation of the wood fibers at the end of a board.


Gum Pocket

An excessive accumulation of resin or gum in the wood.



Cellular separation that occurs in the interior of a board, usually along the wood rays.



The path that the saw makes in the process of cutting.


Medullary Rays

Radial vertical tissues, extending across the growth rings of a tree that enable the transmission of sap and produce a decorative spotted figure in quartersawn boards


Net Tally

The board footage of lumber figured when the board is seasoned to a 6–8% M.C. Also known as dried tally.



The small soft core occurring in the structural center of the log.



Quartersawing means cutting a log radially (90-degree angle) to the growth rings to produce a "vertical" and uniform pattern grain. This method yields fewer and narrower boards per log than plain sawing, boosting their cost . Quartersawn boards are popular for decorative applications.



Rift-sawing at a 30-degree or greater angle to the growth rings produces narrow boards with accentuated vertical or "straight" grain patterns. Rift-sawn boards with their subtle grain figure are often favored for fine furniture or other applications where matching grain is important. This type of lumber is available in limited quantities and species.


Rough (RGH)

The board surface as it comes from the saw — not surfaced.



High quality lumber shorter than standard grade (less than 6 feet long).



A record of the number of pieces and footage by grade.


Vertical Grain (VG)

The grain on quartersawn boards; close ring grain.